Oral mucosal vesiculobullous disorders are autoimmune blistering disorders in which autoantibodies are directed against antigens present in the epidermis and dermoepidermis junction. These lesions resemble each other clinically and routine biopsies may offer histological similarities. Nowadays immunofluorescence is being used with routine histology to accurately diagnose such lesions. In this article, we present application of immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions namely pemphigus, pemphigoid, oral lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, epidermolysis bullous acquisita and linear IgA disease. A brief outline of each disease, in terms of its underlying pathophysiology, some clinical features is also provided so that the relevance of the immunofluorescence finding may be better understood. The 2 main methods of immunofluorescence labelling are direct and indirect along with 2 newer techniques the salt split and biochip immunofluorescence testing can add to the certainty of diagnosis.
Key words: Immunofluorescence, Direct immunofluorescence, Indirect immunofluorescence, Oral mucosal lesions