Background: Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The present study was conducted to assess carotid intima-media thickness in patients of controlled versus uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 controlled diabetics (Group I) and 40 in uncontrolled diabetics (Group II). All patients were subjected to complete physical examination followed by a routine hemogram, complete urine examination, urine for microalbuminuria, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, electrocardiography, high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography for CIMT measurement. Trained sonographers performed the B-mode ultrasound examination with a linear array transducer of 7.5–12 MHz on the selected subjects in supine position with the head slightly extended and turned to the opposite direction of the CCA being studied. Results: The mean duration of diabetes was 4.1 years in group I and 4.82 years in group II, HbA1c level was 6.2 % I group I and 7.5 % in group II, FBG was 122.4 mg/dl, 154.6 mg/dl, SBP was 124.6 mmHg in group I and 128.2 mmHg, DBP was 82.6 mmHg in group I and 128.2 mmHg in group II, total cholesterol was 186.4 mg/dl in group I and 192.6 mg/dl in group II. LDL was 96.2 mg/dl in group I and 106.4 mg/dl in group II, HDL in group I was 46.1 mg/dl and 52.6 mg/dl in group II, VLDL was 40.6 mg/dl in group I and 45.4 mg/dl in group II, triglyceride was 172.5 mg/dl in group I and 192.2 mg/dl in group II. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) in controlled diabetics (group I) was 0.82 mm and in uncontrolled diabetics (Group II) was 1.04 mm. The difference found to be significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that uncontrolled diabetics have increased carotid intima-media thickness. This significantly correlated with other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Key words: Atherosclerosis, carotid intima-media, cardiovascular diseases