Background: To assess the hard and soft tissue parameters around dental implants among smokers and non-smokers with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among 150 patients who received dental implants in the past. In all subjects, crestal bone loss was evaluated using radiographs. Bleeding on probing, peri implant plaque index and peri implant probing depth were measured clinically. Results: The mean age in group I was 47±3 years, in group II was 45± 4 years and in group III was 43±4years. The mean duration of T2DM among smokers and non smokers was 9.4 ± 2.4 and 7.9 ± 1.3 years in group 1 and 8.3±5 and 9.4±3 years in group II respectively. Mean peri implant PI (p= 0.001), BOP (p= 0.02) and PD (p = 0.003) were found to be significantly higher in the patients suffering from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus than the well controlled diabetics or the healthy controls. No statistically significant differences were observed in periodontal probing depth (p=0.43), PI (p=0.567) and crestal bone loss (p= 0.13) between smokers and non smokers in the poorly controlled diabetic individuals. In the healthy control group statistically significant differences were seen in periodontal probing depth (p= 0.003), plaque index (p= 0.002) and crestal bone loss (p =0.001). BOP however did not show statistically significant differences between smokers and non smokers (p = 0.23) in patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in patients with well controlled blood glycemic levels. Conclusion: Peri implant soft tissue inflammatory parameters and crestal bone loss was more significant in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects irrespective of smoking. In healthy subjects smokers had more inflammation and bone loss as compared to non smokers.
Key words: Crestal bone loss, Diabetes, probing index.