Background: The concept of improved lifestyle is gaining tremendous importance with reference to maintenance of periodontal health. Presently very few studies exist showing the effect of tobacco (smoking and smokeless), general education, lifestyle & socioeconomic position on the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Tobacco is one of the major toxic agents in our civilization. Since 1970, prevalence of chewing and smoking has decreased in men but drastically increased among women, teenagers and children. Objective: The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to tobacco (chewing and smoking), demographic factors, educational level and socioeconomic status. Material and Method: A prospective cross-sectional study was planned in the department of dental surgery at Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior. A total of 4000 subjects were examined and randomly selected from our outpatient department (OPD). The pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assess the correlation of smoking and smokeless tobacco, socioeconomic status, general education and demographic factors over periodontal health. The periodontal status and treatment were evaluated by the help of CPITN Index (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs) as CPI (graded as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) and TN (graded as 0, I, II, III). Results: Out of 4000 subjects, males (3576= 89.4%) outnumbered females (424=10.6%) throughout the survey period with a male: female ratio of 8.4:1. Among the study group chewers (2256 patients=56.4%) were strikingly more than the smokers (888 patients). Most of the patients (2112=52.8%) belonged to the lower socio-economic group educated up till the primary education in 1832 cases (45.8%). The periodontal health status graded by CPITN index revealed higher values for CPI 2 in 1280 (32%) patients having positive history of tobacco and presence of local factors. Thus, our study confirmed positive correlation between the deleterious effects of tobacco over periodontal health. Conclusion: There is a strong association of smoking and smokeless tobacco, socioeconomic status, demographic factors and education on periodontal health.
Keywords: Tobacco, Chewing, Smoking, Periodontal health, CPITN.