Dental Implant surgery has become popular with the advancement of surgical techniques such as sinus lift, guided bone regeneration, and block bone graft. Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft & alloplast). Currently autogenous bone is available in cancellous, cortical, or bone marrow aspirate form. Autogenous bone graft is labelled as the “gold standard” due to faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. However, drawbacks including donor-site morbidity and limited quantity of graft available for harvest make autograft a less-than-ideal option for certain patient populations. Progressive advancements in allograft and bone graft substitutes in the past decade have created viable alternatives that sidestep some of the weak points of autografts. Allograft can be a favourable substitute for its convenience, abundance, and lack of patient morbidity. Preferences encompasses structural, particulate, and demineralized bone matrix form. Most frequently used bone graft substitutes include calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate synthetics—these grafts also provide structural support and availability. Other alternatives for allogenic bone grafting include innumerable isolated or combined substitutes of calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulphate and coralline hydroxyapatite. Not all bone grafts will have same properties. Therefore, the necessities of the clinical situation and specific properties of the various types of bone grafts is essential to identify the epitome graft. We present a review of the bone repair process and properties of bone grafts and their substitutes to help guide the clinician in the decision-making process.
Key words: Bone Grafts, Dental Implants, Recent Advances