Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common presentation. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as an important global health concern and is on the rise throughout the world. Hence; the present study was assessment of pattern of drug resistance in sputum positive smear cases of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis using Line probe assay. Materials & methods: A total of 100 patients were included in this study. The first 100 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, willing to participate and given consent were taken as subject for the study. Informed consent was taken for getting the detailed history including previous anti tuberculosis treatment, for performing systemic physical examination and for required investigations as per proforma attached. Two Sputum samples from each patient were collected in sterile containers and immediately sent for AFB smear microscopy. All sputum smear positive cases with previous history of treatment with first line antituberculosis drugs were instructed to collect sputum sample in a sterile, leak proof falcon tube. All sputum smear positive previously treated cases were subjected to Line Probe assay. Chest X ray was done before the start of treatment and thereafter during treatment if necessary. All the data were compiled in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software. Results: H (Isoniazid): Sensitive, R (Rifampicin): Sensitive was found to be present in 51 percent of the patients, while R: Sensitive, H: Resistant was found to be present in 27 percent of the patients. H: Sensitive, R: Resistant was found to be present in 5 percent of the patients while H: Sensitive, R: Sensitive was found to be present in 17 percent of the patients. Conclusion: Line probe assay is a rapid and accurate tool for identification of drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Our findings carry significant importance because there have been scarce data on the prevalence of MDRTB among pulmonary TB patients from the recent past.
Key words: Drug, Resistance, Tuberculosis