Introduction: Psychological disturbances can lead patients to neglect oral hygiene with resultant unfavorable effects on the periodontal tissues. Growing evidence suggests that the psychosocial factors such as stress, depression, and level of social support provoke changes in host defense mechanisms that modify the disease process. In view of this, the present study is an attempt to evaluate the association of stress and periodontitis. Material and Methods: The present study was carried out among 50 subjects both male and female who visited the institute for dental treatments. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I included patients with chronic periodontitis and group II consisted of individuals with healthy periodontium. Clinical measures such as OHI-S, PI, clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. The serum cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. Unpaired 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis Results: The present study revealed a significant difference among OHI-S, Plaque index (PI) and of serum cortisol levels among age matched patients with chronic periodontitis patients and without chronic periodontitis and a positive co-relation of serum cortisol level and clinical attachment level was found in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present study suggests a positive co-relation of serum cortisol level and chronic periodontitis Thus, psychosocial stress may be associated with periodontal destruction through behavioral and physiologic mechanisms and hence represents a risk indicator for periodontal disease and should be addressed before and during treatment.
Keywords: Cortisol; Periodontitis; Psychosocial factors; Stress