Objective: This study was conducted with the objective to determine the effect of breastfeeding education based on the health belief model (HBM) toward primiparous women of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: In a case–control group, quasi‑experimental study, 88 subjects were allocated in control and experimental groups. Subjects who were assigned to the experimental group were provided a program consisting of group education based on HBM during their prenatal period. Instrument for data gathering was made by the researchers and standard questionnaire from Dennis and Faux for Breastfeeding Self‑efficacy Scale (BSES). Baseline interviews were conducted before delivery and follow‑up visits were conducted after 30 days and at the fourth month after delivery. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20) and the test applied were independent sample t‑tests, and paired t‑test. Results: Mean age of pregnant women who participated in the study was 22 ± 3.29 years. After the program, the experimental group had significantly better scores in terms of self‑efficacy, knowledge, and attitude scores statistically. In the fourth month, the mean of child weight in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.001) and exclusive breastfeeding was significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.007). Conclusion: Prenatal education in this study based on HBM was successful, and knowledge, attitude, self‑efficacy, and related indicators improved. The necessity of producing standard education package and education of pregnant mothers, especially in their first pregnancy, by health professionals is perceived.
Keywords: Primiparous women, Health Belief Model, Breastfeeding, Self-efficacy