Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth (periodontium). During periodontitis, cigarette smoking may differentially affect neutrophil function, generally preventing elimination of periodontal pathogens, but, in heavy smokers also stimulated reactive oxygen species release and oxidative stress mediated tissue damage. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the prevalence of periodontitis among smokers and non-smokers. Materials & methods: A total of 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers were enrolled in the present study. A mouth mirror and Williamís probe was used for doing the clinical and periodontal examination. CPI index was used for comparing the periodontal status in between patients of the two study groups. Codes and criteria of CPI index: Code-0=No periodontal disease (healthy periodontium); Code-1=Bleeding observed during or after probing; Code-2=Calculus or other plaque retentive factors either seen or felt during probing; Code-3=Pathological pocket 4 to 5 mm in depth. Gingival margin situated on black band of the probe; and Code-4=Pathological pocket 6 mm or more in depth. Black band of the probe is not visible.
Results: Among the smokers group, 30 patients were having code 2 (Calculus) of CPI score, while 8 and 9 patients were having code 3 (Shallow pockets) and code 4 (deep pockets) of CPI score respectively. Only 3 patients of the smokers group were having code 1 (Bleeding) of CPI score. Among the non-smokers group, 22 patients were having code 2 (Calculus) of CPI score, while 15 and 5 patients were having code 3 (Shallow pockets) and code 4 (deep pockets) of CPI score respectively. 8 patients of the non-smokers group were having code 1 (Bleeding) of CPI score. While comparing the CPI scores among smokers and non-smokers group, significant results were obtained. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant deleterious effect on the periodontal health.
Key words: Periodontal, Smoking