Background: Knowledge of relevant anatomy is important for the safe execution of any operative procedure. There is now a fair amount of data to suggest that the acceptance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) as the standard procedure, has led to an increase in bile duct injuries. Hence; we planned the present study to evaluate various complications seen in patients undergoing LC. Materials & methods: We planned included evaluation of various post-operative complications in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. A total of 120 patients were included present study. All patients treated with LC. Any complication found post operatively was recorded. The collected data was entered computer and managed statistically using SPSS computer program version 17. Results: The most common complication was adhesions (55), bleeding (38), empyema (22) and CBD (20), mucocele (24), anomaly of cystic duct (10) and bowel injury (8) and difficult calot’s triangle (2). The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Wound infection was seen in 75 patients. Others were jaundice (32), biliary fistula (28), nausea/vomiting (24), biliary strictures (15) and incisional hernia (17).Conclusion: Commonly encountered post-operative complications in patients undergoing LC include wound infection, jaundice, biliary fistula, nausea/vomiting, biliary strictures and incisional hernia.
Key words: Cholecystectomy, Laproscopic, Gall stones
Vaccination is a process that induces specific immune resistance to a bacterial or viral infection. Edward Jenner developed and established the principle of vaccination using the cross protection conferred by cowpox virus, which is non pathogenic in humans. With the rapid growth of microbial genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis tools we have the potential to examine all the genes and proteins from any human pathogen. This technique has the capability to provide us with new targets for anti-microbial drugs and vaccines. However, to realize this potential new bioinformatics and experimental approaches to select these targets from the myriad of available candidates are required.
Key words: Immune response, periodontal vaccine, periodontitis.